# TikZ diagrams for economists: A normal pdf with shaded area.

I have been dabbling with the TikZ package to create some diagrams relevant to a first year microeconomics course. The following diagram of the probability density function (pdf) of a normal distribution may be useful to others wishing to integrate similar diagrams into their LaTeX documents or Beamer presentations. To use, insert the following code anywhere you like within a .tex document (you must include \usepackage{tikz} in your header):

## The Cumulative Density of $y$ #### INSERT INTO .TEX DOCUMENT

[sourcecode]
\begin{tikzpicture}
% define normal distribution function ‘normaltwo’
\def\normaltwo{\x,{4*1/exp(((\x-3)^2)/2)}}

% input y parameter
\def\y{4.4}

% this line calculates f(y)
\def\fy{4*1/exp(((\y-3)^2)/2)}

% Shade orange area underneath curve.
\fill [fill=orange!60] (2.6,0) — plot[domain=0:4.4] (\normaltwo) — ({\y},0) — cycle;

% Draw and label normal distribution function
\draw[color=blue,domain=0:6] plot (\normaltwo) node[right] {};

% Add dashed line dropping down from normal.
\draw[dashed] ({\y},{\fy}) — ({\y},0) node[below] {$y$};

% Optional: Add axis labels
\draw (-.2,2.5) node[left] {$f_Y(u)$};
\draw (3,-.5) node[below] {$u$};

% Optional: Add axes
\draw[->] (0,0) — (6.2,0) node[right] {};
\draw[->] (0,0) — (0,5) node[above] {};

\end{tikzpicture}
[/sourcecode]

## The Probability of $u$ Falling Between $x$ and $y$ #### INSERT INTO .TEX DOCUMENT

[sourcecode]
\begin{tikzpicture}
% define normal distribution function ‘normaltwo’
\def\normaltwo{\x,{4*1/exp(((\x-3)^2)/2)}}

% input x and y parameters
\def\y{4.4}
\def\x{3.4}

% this line calculates f(y)
\def\fy{4*1/exp(((\y-3)^2)/2)}
\def\fx{4*1/exp(((\x-3)^2)/2)}

% Shade orange area underneath curve.
\fill [fill=orange!60] ({\x},0) — plot[domain={\x}:{\y}] (\normaltwo) — ({\y},0) — cycle;

% Draw and label normal distribution function
\draw[color=blue,domain=0:6] plot (\normaltwo) node[right] {};

% Add dashed line dropping down from normal.
\draw[dashed] ({\y},{\fy}) — ({\y},0) node[below] {$y$};
\draw[dashed] ({\x},{\fx}) — ({\x},0) node[below] {$x$};

% Optional: Add axis labels
\draw (-.2,2.5) node[left] {$f_Y(u)$};
\draw (3,-.5) node[below] {$u$};

% Optional: Add axes
\draw[->] (0,0) — (6.2,0) node[right] {};
\draw[->] (0,0) — (0,5) node[above] {};

\end{tikzpicture}
[/sourcecode]

The TikZ code snippet above is meant to be dropped into a .tex document and work without any further “tinkering”. Please let me know if this is not the case!

## 7 thoughts on “TikZ diagrams for economists: A normal pdf with shaded area.”

1. Leszek says:

Thanks for the code. This is very useful – I used it as the foundation for material I’m typesetting for my students and you’ve deepened my LateX expertise.

2. Roslina Zakaria says:

Hi,
This is indeed very useful! Well done.

How do I change this part so that the shaded area is at both ends?

\fill [fill=orange!60] ({\x},0) — plot[domain={\x}:{\y}] (\normaltwo) — ({\y},0) — cycle;

Thank you very much.

3. lstoetze says:

Hi, very nice post. I used the code for a presentation and found out that it is straightfoward to make the curve a bit smoother using the following:

\draw[color=blue,domain=0:6] plot[samples=1000] (\normaltwo) node[right] {};

Thank you very much.

4. Top Notch Orange County Massage says:

What’s up, everything is going well here and ofcourse every one is sharing data, that’s actually excellent, keep
up writing.

5. Seeker says:

Thanks a lot! 🙂 this helped me more than the questions on stackexchange. at least it has comments 🙂

6. Pedro says:

Hi, Thanks for sharing this. I have used this example in my thesis, could you point me out how should I give you credit? Thanks.

1. Kevin Goulding says:

Hi Pedro, the following citation would work fine:

Goulding, Kevin. ‘Tikz diagrams for economists: A normal pdf with shaded area’. the Tarzan 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.